Great Orme Exploration Society Ltd.

Aliandsteve thm Erik on stope in Romans tmb Happy Valley Geoff David tmb Mark at Sims portal tmb Ogof Llech head tmb Tony on Ice-Bridge tmb Winze tmb JC abseiling from ore wagon Gaz on trolley in Pen Morfa pipe

  Potential and realizable ores from the Great Orme Mines


Main/Minor ore minerals

Trace minerals

Tonnage, Grade, Continuity

Beneficiation and results

Metals in smelter charge

Bronze Age Ores






1a copper veins


1b copper-vugh infilling

Chalcopyrite, malachite, copper-bearing limonite. Coarse-grain size. Few intergrowths


Copper Sulphide - digenite, djurleite, covelline, spionkopite,       Copper Oxides - Cuprite, tenorite. Native Copper -  Sphalerite, manganese oxides.

High tonnage, continuous. Approx.10% Cu metal.                                                         High tonnage, discontinuous. 10% Cu metal or less.

High grade chalcopyrite - malachite Cu bearing limonite concentrate by hand-cobbing.


Cu, Fe, trace Ni, Ag, Mn.

By product - Bronze Age Ores?






2a Copper Ddu

Amorphous iron - copper bearing oxides/hydroxides. Minor malachite. Powdery


Tonnes, locally discontinuous. <5% Cu metal?

Benificiation not possible.

Fe, Cu, trace Co, Mn, Ni As.

2b Azurite-shales

Azurite nodules <1cm, minor malachite.

Chalcopyrite, Pyrite.

Very local. Continuous. <2% Cu.

High grade Azurite concentrate.

Cu, trace Fe.

Non copper ore assemblages






3a Polymetallic disseminated sulphides.

Chalcopyrite, galena, siegenite, pyrite, marcasite, Fine-grained, complex intergrown sulphides.

Cobaltite/gersdorffite malachite, azurite, tennantite, sphalerite.

Very little? No in situ ore seen.      <5% Cu.

Fine-grained separate copper concentrate not possible.

Fe, Cu, Co, Pb, trace Ni, Zn, As.

3b Galena veins.

Galena, minor chalcopyrite. Coarse-grained galena.

Malachite, nickeliferous pyrite, marcasite, millerite, sphalerite.

Little tonnage. Continuous but localized. <1% Cu metal.

Lead concentrate by hand cobbing. Copper concentrate not possible.

Pb, Cu, Fe, trace Ni, Co, Ag, Zn.

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