GOESLOGO

Great Orme Exploration Society Ltd.

Aliandsteve thm Erik on stope in Romans tmb Happy Valley Geoff David tmb Mark at Sims portal tmb Ogof Llech head tmb Tony on Ice-Bridge tmb Winze tmb JC abseiling from ore wagon Gaz on trolley in Pen Morfa pipe

  Potential and realizable ores from the Great Orme Mines

 

Main/Minor ore minerals

Trace minerals

Tonnage, Grade, Continuity

Beneficiation and results

Metals in smelter charge

Bronze Age Ores

 

 

 

 

 

1a copper veins

 

1b copper-vugh infilling

Chalcopyrite, malachite, copper-bearing limonite. Coarse-grain size. Few intergrowths

 

Copper Sulphide - digenite, djurleite, covelline, spionkopite,       Copper Oxides - Cuprite, tenorite. Native Copper -  Sphalerite, manganese oxides.

High tonnage, continuous. Approx.10% Cu metal.                                                         High tonnage, discontinuous. 10% Cu metal or less.

High grade chalcopyrite - malachite Cu bearing limonite concentrate by hand-cobbing.

 

Cu, Fe, trace Ni, Ag, Mn.

By product - Bronze Age Ores?

 

 

 

 

 

2a Copper Ddu

Amorphous iron - copper bearing oxides/hydroxides. Minor malachite. Powdery

None

Tonnes, locally discontinuous. <5% Cu metal?

Benificiation not possible.

Fe, Cu, trace Co, Mn, Ni As.

2b Azurite-shales

Azurite nodules <1cm, minor malachite.

Chalcopyrite, Pyrite.

Very local. Continuous. <2% Cu.

High grade Azurite concentrate.

Cu, trace Fe.

Non copper ore assemblages

 

 

 

 

 

3a Polymetallic disseminated sulphides.

Chalcopyrite, galena, siegenite, pyrite, marcasite, Fine-grained, complex intergrown sulphides.

Cobaltite/gersdorffite malachite, azurite, tennantite, sphalerite.

Very little? No in situ ore seen.      <5% Cu.

Fine-grained separate copper concentrate not possible.

Fe, Cu, Co, Pb, trace Ni, Zn, As.

3b Galena veins.

Galena, minor chalcopyrite. Coarse-grained galena.

Malachite, nickeliferous pyrite, marcasite, millerite, sphalerite.

Little tonnage. Continuous but localized. <1% Cu metal.

Lead concentrate by hand cobbing. Copper concentrate not possible.

Pb, Cu, Fe, trace Ni, Co, Ag, Zn.

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